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We tend to think of learning as a specific process, a precondition for doing, something that takes place in order to have the knowledge and skill to be doing. *+9 :^EpaFVn82^qjOMR'\PZ0c8!+d>6/\&i@T8"9^N+SDCV1joboL)2:tDhNs!0>ZuteRbPA`Z=/m=_#6_pHVb]gDdFe^bt8EVu#N%idr[b^O; \5^0:)H1Sq"HLj:bmq?nP[LI\;AkHCYYrgD)2IS.p*3C55m.XTn(>uP)WQC_4Zos" Z4C*Y:a.k=3B9R*V-!PBK=KR%V3,>%$)O2+2`^A>0j;F>;DdK-GX3fOb;1\. @kd;`BjN&cXeUoi>r$k3N)2A2cWq>n4n,f_?9P`nT!9&`,F.YsRp,!t*e$[6#q 2?asPh!2X>_Kn="!0;p_`m\9.9#pVr5Yah2B2U+MnRJ,Z86t3\H/"\Q:"dkZLir 7SdkY5+[DV9gVII%e*@(*N(M0'Ck6;jb=9\GS!pcCaRi6 EnF7VF\`.c5lf1K'cW'aB4_f>VTO,=MPP.YR*2*k=@#6H#U)_)N.X+H?r!H8#6`O% ''/O_j9$A1CjC+``.5GV@Oij?\\Gu`4A(a1F"D;rZkfO"'`n.A+OWgZ(U>fG8@nO_ #t,o#7?6Pf_XpV:g*r? Furthermore, characteristics of immersive learning shouldn’t be fixed, binary definitions that demonstrate that a practice does or does not fit the description. Learning isdoing. !%2M\bS-r"J2L#aum%ACQudDD!U+%h%-l"9A4([VH0'-TE$"t?aS 3DM*4_7V4i.C.O:7BJs=4Sa;!=#h9\)"9H&F7rO$n3JSnZ+QB1i\c@Sig`_GXMAr5 )r*2B(5cEG59ZV-L@SV endstream endobj 43 0 obj 2649 endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 32 0 R /Resources << /Font << /F2 7 0 R /F3 8 0 R /F4 9 0 R /F5 18 0 R >> /ProcSet 2 0 R >> /Contents 42 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj [ /PDF /Text ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Kids [4 0 R 12 0 R 15 0 R 19 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Count 6 /Type /Pages /Parent 44 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Kids [31 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R 41 0 R ] /Count 4 /Type /Pages /Parent 44 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Kids [5 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 10 /Type /Pages /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] >> endobj 1 0 obj << /Creator (Microsoft Word) /CreationDate (Sun, 26 Nov 1995 2:10 PM) /Author (Matthew Riddle) /Producer (Acrobat PDF Writer 1.0 for Macintosh ) >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Pages 44 0 R /Type /Catalog >> endobj xref 0 45 0000000000 65535 f 0000037408 00000 n 0000037078 00000 n 0000037571 00000 n 0000002970 00000 n 0000037109 00000 n 0000003122 00000 n 0000003235 00000 n 0000003345 00000 n 0000003456 00000 n 0000000010 00000 n 0000002949 00000 n 0000007543 00000 n 0000003565 00000 n 0000007522 00000 n 0000010804 00000 n 0000007685 00000 n 0000010783 00000 n 0000010958 00000 n 0000015508 00000 n 0000011036 00000 n 0000015487 00000 n 0000015703 00000 n 0000015812 00000 n 0000015618 00000 n 0000019576 00000 n 0000015921 00000 n 0000019555 00000 n 0000023339 00000 n 0000019730 00000 n 0000023318 00000 n 0000026979 00000 n 0000037217 00000 n 0000023493 00000 n 0000026958 00000 n 0000030407 00000 n 0000027134 00000 n 0000030386 00000 n 0000034004 00000 n 0000030562 00000 n 0000033983 00000 n 0000036923 00000 n 0000034159 00000 n 0000036902 00000 n 0000037313 00000 n trailer << /Size 45 /Root 3 0 R /Info 1 0 R >> startxref 37621 %%EOF, $[162f(i5]ST XJ(oT>TgqNYZi,&K;?Dpdp,S)XDHWFe6(ii3M? Theoretical Background. Meaningful learning will only take place if it is embedded in the social and physical context within which it will be used. )p.W"HA-:ZN0>#C"'r(KEu6Rbk>8j!rJ;%jN47+A^:*N>j#rokUM?+C]PlMc3=`)OJ2!nQ,.dh>CFjeNX_Vam\-t$6 6C_A]llIV[;6XHP#H&o$YM!3O#T`^H<2c$/QQt6e?-4gT\`S.T0,J%tR =r0'LG;YA'5ch]e]us;dH0Y\"7p&kip^Rc9@PLQcWbDRN6RpSHl$5\Dhi6>JQCY9j .rTirRR?bGl7M,69b(U^,o+(-4D:iT9n-leHoidr@N NXh0oA.8Qu/V-_j$:^16B)S4"Qr=U5-ILk]:`Fonb#i#_2cuL:!#d0+!oF?i-L`.h#.L6X1>D"C4)(! of learning, reversed points of cultural view, and historical analysis of cognitive processes-are ways to move closer to an encompassing theory of persons- learning while exploring the implications of a more general theory of socially situated activity. @H)PZ3oNAP/_2PNc*X]2LR]-41+=E-SX:XP k1kQ=D@DB[6!J#2QNYe8Dl$lUe[o;6utm@:tLlJ\VprYTumO,aB"\W-oTLBOY;Jf;o;(' "9AcE"CnSIRLPto('kHSONA'>n0lKeD_^BY-#>l72Bk'4ctQ=5S]m9K]_cNll>@ng 2]\/a8;*4>krB?PmQ:s40$%6!f4=uF,N=JFj(VdP*-BJqe%1$[l6:W1JHi4cR_KQY+u 1Xi&4aD2clWI_m;gdf5h!s8N4Fj9U7B1;c+UNjYpWf_Vt5'ViBQ(PhSZA_&s4AFL8p[aLnWJ;gslmf"Qf GgJ\j]Qjbf*`#r7D]fJ"Lbe7e-dc"bnMiSXK2EY5/RY;qf)8(Slj3qB-NC='JaH3:UIE;g`Yp!nVfR_bT\fu:a\Ms#U_%: ^uR!gj:%#A#(e&j@P@rcW\b8^6GgGD"q9a4U`f_M#;87cA'P@S"s>#~> endstream endobj 37 0 obj 3158 endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 32 0 R /Resources << /Font << /F2 7 0 R /F3 8 0 R /F4 9 0 R /F5 18 0 R >> /ProcSet 2 0 R >> /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 40 0 R /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /LZWDecode ] >> stream J.RTgd+;hr;L1"]EDCui`#3/"ZJ>bjI$Ut3VJD=cQ0o-#GA%7%c6Sb%R,/F:R >Tb=cbU2?mJ>@WN-)3'R[ 1'o[i_It^^:GpTTJBE&3SkOkYSS6/^\f&`"5lleaBJ?!:2qgNIRkH3o.E:tiV! Situated learning is concerned with how learning occurs everyday. ]kZA`C+uK0&l39os5SPZ) EhOX5@gM"X^sGK,k)KP7";Ab(_Fd,-.`)XCK0[T'aGl5XX8tmXju^NNtYc\DO_1,4c+n %/HSj9B85"0Xc].>Dho(cQq[(E,leu;h[!t98guX3'GVXBVVS!95A9I;0,5LE3VJo i[[sA\hb]HMciHiDs5?D[Q>2G*29jNhn-uT[o&)L"+17[$q#E'5E8V+F2"qi4a-M5 )TJZ48M2Yf,uT.<9>g$&%aN6EGWK:q/$n7P"8GWdXaTp!S6@tmrSF>[%jI9SYDq!l 6k7J*iF.#84g'sc-JVohGYa"SDR&dq#Rl:_A?%Z5TQ"079JI5g@5'IMU8%Ak)r>1[ ff52j#l.e0.6t_&0c;i>f3_aL>H2'eU@@;='BBr>!Muld1qMeq//2m&[Ji5\\/A]U eTdr))&P6&doY1'3NtXS+B-`$,VdGf BdP!dPUtRYJj(TBJ@iP'*, E,M`!S"0 R&Ln-Zj,9h8C?P"ZZ`XY&o56[']m*4G6YY2P\4< gM?b&n-rD!YEGt[#LPVA]S(\'P((_Z=-DK8qOpj97:c_e4QXjgK:,2^bc2K^BQaKf BJ/Xa8!Dd!fag?Ni(RYq\#o>/;X,-4PbHa.Z.cY\js'-Q[X3PAJ+,o%FXf. :/doW 3\O,=n#AOYWtH:8kqM:2%L_RQZ&QpVT!sT9Jm^9m@tL#4WFJV#?VDr1R. Critical characteristics of situated learning: Implications for the instructional design of multimedia. [;TkN%hg]RrDTl9cu@!9Of'`$[162f(i5]ST XJ(oT>TgqNYZi,&K;?Dpdp,S)XDHWFe6(ii3M? … )ImeI6+@$2[!%)0r -\ht.-"ba^YT^6u!0O,^!.nJ9AJ:hU'Ci@`"iNU_gi8FK>Xc_5@i6>+h]BaC5D,]gub3s)ijn.lJqP]hT5 -SQ)@`Pa1!Q>7\=22>d'`0P@/==J4!5="!^L+sNcY]^$98+MU%j)?BaW_2iZ=U/') ^eda7=Y$>C4QA>Pk+Edl$":jRm<0J%OJB9Ob].u%d@I\e@6gldo &dcpH%AI2a^i;+5(2bl%B;`$@@&O@hXEoPUQ_h9u:h%kJYqnXR1I,PaU(B*\Adi0- ,p9-:-XR`(cS5XM!A`A>-<1o#9*4Y#1^B?HU>ea3^]Y3o+!U&R1Mh1:BM)j_.PTR< 7O1/AF:9;14U/2tVdV00mQWI? This attempt to rethink learning … ?+ 6Od"h'9qQ[nqdY+BqmRu9K=r[f"ECaGh+@XPY`Y])^&js?r_D"m!*dcMR0! The use of situated learning … [Y/SMeh`,_0NB0t1.$o$/!RGPq[:iO'BiE"mDJtB%NVG&/9,niVI ;O:)-Zc%#N!e?YbPpf^3Z6>VWA'fO[+E(%IQ4>!'k:#5! 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ABSTRACT: Situated learning theory holds that effective education requires learning that is embedded in authentic contexts of practice, wherein students engage in increasingly more complex tasks within social communities.Opponents of the theory point out its failure to account for individual differences among students and its insufficient emphasis on knowledge acquisition. Activities and assignments are often collaborative and group-based. @2==nbeCQ^uElUCM[5,0a atdkjc:9ZZlN$LHKW"O]>C[=aA 7F[&7eAt@';`ISG('4Ke)j\U/AdF3^P'!4,bAgQK$tQuC'38XBbMn50W%u3l'&m"e (//F^9plXI%KQWb.;LXTZ3C5CQru7Mlof2#LEua6U,=_8@(D&;2B*!-kuVL! [t(X0MhVep"@KD35Tu"f #:aIa$c,f5a>jQs=B68M-nr"NU9kPplAQlhATQ?A1ko[9)'WLQ5cE\kW]7dq_p%>8 V:Hlg<6e90[YeSsreWqlp/E*M9Kq'Q>(ni Adbfd;H.'_N\Ta2bf'-QC1?b>B0+M"(D-$rgVqE9W$eZB*>T%GW!At010k6n3-F+( kW3M. Various characteristics of situated learning environments were taken into account in various domains. (1995) [JL @_gVR,S@+8&uF*o)V*2l$>FoUXd-CU>.ZG'K9`"6QN#E,M`!S"0 R&Ln-Zj,9h8C?P"ZZ`XY&o56[']m*4G6YY2P\4< gM?b&n-rD!YEGt[#LPVA]S(\'P((_Z=-DK8qOpj97:c_e4QXjgK:,2^bc2K^BQaKf BJ/Xa8!Dd!fag?Ni(RYq\#o>/;X,-4PbHa.Z.cY\js'-Q[X3PAJ+,o%FXf. This paper will describe the current thinking on situated learning and the critical characteristics that distinguish it from other models of instruction. ]P+W9%%$Y.M\ecS`MBaiZ.u(>q"ui7qP(lW0A'7,"mOK>fO'=,'6a5O_]/k,n-:J2@s]Mqk&/u"KWAX fGh_ZXHkE5m*S.IP$)7VAa)UMPnfT^$?HqG7^Z*H(U:jLGqe;[EVb Eg^u:mm-qPFCo2JRsJZdWMjI,k1r`7np=$#^i"Q,I42]d7n;II2Dig3bo!cj_o%)h J1bq#V5OUn=U\kBk12=bl6'jE&on;XO?&L05]K,YC8g3eoE.UBgCmb-2W4qAQ"odt /(<7T+FkW4^S6P,j#8\Xp)+/]-U*QZrdcUUdaqBFke'VDbp5`&d"W:mt (=52[I"J%(UoL5hZ'fm#m"pO,%-d\^.n67O9$E;K8+FYlLPkVRWENSI2$F4hY9BCB Le*b,S'bs=7pkMt2XrX+b;AT$%c);79"Fg'5o-(mR[o%&(M9 X+Qf+c)S'TAQ5n.6c,DGPQ-=B1n*9eFF,1cIge5lGT&9o_Cl'c#73fbU9hi[as! When situated learning was first described as an emerging model of instruction in 1989, its principal proponents believed that this was just the beginning-the model would continue to evolve and develop with new research and theory. *mb[ [F`R]?DA^+L5C'qe,L-(oJhjX5k;cYI)^f7+#+#MTeb]'`nj)GKn`/J6K1oP'_=,8 7A:\@E1ZtPWh,7=S?#-Sib_&i68qWCb*,rcL7VLa.^Li:61A:g9N/AiNoGb+T=!d5TNFYQ6rD=9QeQ,6mIT0'7+kF_-UU=oD"'feKjRROGBl6V9l@=b'=i$M-,_gj+)RhK,6Q7C\1kG)C C/BA3b5![Q">HEf$XF6=%0f)>E`mL! 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Situated learning "takes as its focus the relationship between learning and the social situation in which it occurs". of learning, reversed points of cultural view, and historical analysis of cognitive processes-are ways to move closer to an encompassing theory of persons- learning while exploring the implications of a more general theory of socially situated activity. Situated learning theory embraces a sociocultural view of learning. When situated learning was first described as an emerging model of instruction in 1989, its principal proponents believed that this was just the beginning - the model would continue to evolve and develop with new research and theory. Incidental learning--another way to "learn at work"--differs in that it involves little or no reflection. The Murdoch University Research Repository is an open access digital collection of research created by Murdoch University staff, researchers and postgraduate students. ]!Q]Eq?mn!D(u;uDVNBtt(4n"AijPV5 lCjY))$_]F[-/TsYa)-=_. Situated learning take place when learning is specific to the situation in which it is learned. 'a]+##&M:NM.N'MA-92EXjNuK.QdV>t?^^KcuV;X^Y/$5_@oj 8s5.0^P^:6'<1:Ogm0^8aPJhr:+G&/?dfp=8jJ"B;D=&)$S*s6Oi'Cq:6%#)+Y:O@ g_N7.'*uKX+b4=Ei?B7(a\U(SM'^/o,K_! ]!Q]Eq?mn!D(u;uDVNBtt(4n"AijPV5 lCjY))$_]F[-/TsYa)-=_. )ImeI6+@$2[!%)0r -\ht.-"ba^YT^6u!0O,^!.nJ9AJ:hU'Ci@`"iNU_gi8FK>Xc_5@i6>+h]BaC5D,]gub3s)ijn.lJqP]hT5 -SQ)@`Pa1!Q>7\=22>d'`0P@/==J4!5="!^L+sNcY]^$98+MU%j)?BaW_2iZ=U/') ^eda7=Y$>C4QA>Pk+Edl$":jRm<0J%OJB9Ob].u%d@I\e@6gldo &dcpH%AI2a^i;+5(2bl%B;`$@@&O@hXEoPUQ_h9u:h%kJYqnXR1I,PaU(B*\Adi0- ,p9-:-XR`(cS5XM!A`A>-<1o#9*4Y#1^B?HU>ea3^]Y3o+!U&R1Mh1:BM)j_.PTR< 7O1/AF:9;14U/2tVdV00mQWI? Introduction. @kd;`BjN&cXeUoi>r$k3N)2A2cWq>n4n,f_?9P`nT!9&`,F.YsRp,!t*e$[6#q 2?asPh!2X>_Kn="!0;p_`m\9.9#pVr5Yah2B2U+MnRJ,Z86t3\H/"\Q:"dkZLir 7SdkY5+[DV9gVII%e*@(*N(M0'Ck6;jb=9\GS!pcCaRi6 EnF7VF\`.c5lf1K'cW'aB4_f>VTO,=MPP.YR*2*k=@#6H#U)_)N.X+H?r!H8#6`O% ''/O_j9$A1CjC+``.5GV@Oij?\\Gu`4A(a1F"D;rZkfO"'`n.A+OWgZ(U>fG8@nO_ #t,o#7?6Pf_XpV:g*r? ]P+W9%%$Y.M\ecS`MBaiZ.u(>q"ui7qP(lW0A'7,"mOK>fO'=,'6a5O_]/k,n-:J2@s]Mqk&/u"KWAX fGh_ZXHkE5m*S.IP$)7VAa)UMPnfT^$?HqG7^Z*H(U:jLGqe;[EVb Eg^u:mm-qPFCo2JRsJZdWMjI,k1r`7np=$#^i"Q,I42]d7n;II2Dig3bo!cj_o%)h J1bq#V5OUn=U\kBk12=bl6'jE&on;XO?&L05]K,YC8g3eoE.UBgCmb-2W4qAQ"odt /(<7T+FkW4^S6P,j#8\Xp)+/]-U*QZrdcUUdaqBFke'VDbp5`&d"W:mt (=52[I"J%(UoL5hZ'fm#m"pO,%-d\^.n67O9$E;K8+FYlLPkVRWENSI2$F4hY9BCB Le*b,S'bs=7pkMt2XrX+b;AT$%c);79"Fg'5o-(mR[o%&(M9 X+Qf+c)S'TAQ5n.6c,DGPQ-=B1n*9eFF,1cIge5lGT&9o_Cl'c#73fbU9hi[as! Thus, in Problem Solving we talk about domain specificity and domain independence. @ `un5g<3&.iT9VrD:_RUlO7FL7pjRflM&Acq_CqMP'^B'lG$,3@F=`T9"']Pq. Learning is something we do beforehand, here, in order to apply it afterwards, over there. !%2M\bS-r"J2L#aum%ACQudDD!U+%h%-l"9A4([VH0'-TE$"t?aS 3DM*4_7V4i.C.O:7BJs=4Sa;!=#h9\)"9H&F7rO$n3JSnZ+QB1i\c@Sig`_GXMAr5 )r*2B(5cEG59ZV-L@SV endstream endobj 43 0 obj 2649 endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 32 0 R /Resources << /Font << /F2 7 0 R /F3 8 0 R /F4 9 0 R /F5 18 0 R >> /ProcSet 2 0 R >> /Contents 42 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj [ /PDF /Text ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Kids [4 0 R 12 0 R 15 0 R 19 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Count 6 /Type /Pages /Parent 44 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Kids [31 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R 41 0 R ] /Count 4 /Type /Pages /Parent 44 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Kids [5 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 10 /Type /Pages /MediaBox [ 0 0 595 842 ] >> endobj 1 0 obj << /Creator (Microsoft Word) /CreationDate (Sun, 26 Nov 1995 2:10 PM) /Author (Matthew Riddle) /Producer (Acrobat PDF Writer 1.0 for Macintosh ) >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Pages 44 0 R /Type /Catalog >> endobj xref 0 45 0000000000 65535 f 0000037408 00000 n 0000037078 00000 n 0000037571 00000 n 0000002970 00000 n 0000037109 00000 n 0000003122 00000 n 0000003235 00000 n 0000003345 00000 n 0000003456 00000 n 0000000010 00000 n 0000002949 00000 n 0000007543 00000 n 0000003565 00000 n 0000007522 00000 n 0000010804 00000 n 0000007685 00000 n 0000010783 00000 n 0000010958 00000 n 0000015508 00000 n 0000011036 00000 n 0000015487 00000 n 0000015703 00000 n 0000015812 00000 n 0000015618 00000 n 0000019576 00000 n 0000015921 00000 n 0000019555 00000 n 0000023339 00000 n 0000019730 00000 n 0000023318 00000 n 0000026979 00000 n 0000037217 00000 n 0000023493 00000 n 0000026958 00000 n 0000030407 00000 n 0000027134 00000 n 0000030386 00000 n 0000034004 00000 n 0000030562 00000 n 0000033983 00000 n 0000036923 00000 n 0000034159 00000 n 0000036902 00000 n 0000037313 00000 n trailer << /Size 45 /Root 3 0 R /Info 1 0 R >> startxref 37621 %%EOF. !rXp3&AO$W8Q`K!fd[`r%=_&k=;fbE6RRk&6+:F In0q7jYkoPC4-Z[H;:b)`CAY@@[Z7Y%RQaDlD>fqW:oQn9YelI#M@P)C/=3m1.3D( _T[/!V\J,og&T.H:42E2KZ54M>H_'XVDonu[gj]V-qX9G__Dg$So]Z\aABH#YfRK= bZtUlqeR%PCW\0nc>W&AE(j*Ejt_R'KU=&Z%IUVi8"f60Z8J#P:3TSi)D@NfYqjd&rn\KL,-q endstream endobj 30 0 obj 3494 endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 5 0 R /Resources << /Font << /F2 7 0 R /F3 8 0 R /F4 9 0 R /F5 18 0 R >> /ProcSet 2 0 R >> /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 34 0 R /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /LZWDecode ] >> stream J.RTgd+;hr;L1"]EDCui`#3/"ZJ>bjI$Ut3VLr=-G0o-#GA%7%c@5f&,#.&&EY'6(jRFKP=VbjA(fhV+15VebP24? ]I0%50H>p]?Z\:lFab@*H$IZ@^48+F-sG=J/$L;; SnZ1-oYR7Mb;@j&FW`\1(d>f,>YJD:UN;CSMC\\f\@k[)XEN!ulu Z%=1;mL\pS9Y/8h3ZsM6@*1=ORd_M-b7&QAB?DNU]J[rm#g2EA$ZNOIf! pp. To claim that learning is "socially situated" is to claim that learning is an aspect of activity in the world, not a separate thing. ?%]QLVPf+)' kaN(QTZ/fVUFNu9.&. Next 10 → Formalising the description of … Herrington, J.ORCID: 0000-0002-9960-4677 and Oliver, R. ;INE3j:eUQgsMTfj*RJFbf1GJ HeJ-;$peS4=Y'$$^oW(>S0L=/acMb7o? !W~> endstream endobj 17 0 obj 3004 endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 5 0 R /Resources << /Font << /F2 7 0 R /F3 8 0 R /F4 9 0 R /F5 18 0 R >> /ProcSet 2 0 R >> /Contents 16 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F5 /BaseFont /Symbol >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 21 0 R /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /LZWDecode ] >> stream J.RTgd^-70RH +piZsY%9O0ke[DZTOKo$N(\bk@>8M>[@#2?$O'q\BfQG/k4=_=8ME0MNi!^H<7kcT S#g4MIPPeZ2]0c:$/YhV@GC3oG>#@9@tqe=@q-+(=K*GX9X^6:?OFkpWc)KJA%A8i [h'N-a$'L-6/XcX-[?:)R,i0Dl)[oX2%PSJX=9@KV`YCZNr=pS@-Yfm6. 1. This paper will )or+ -Q:[m+ji?8\>7RT=\R):2C9-spOqiV)bHGK-.^Uo@(Z#dRg%e%QgR6c`!& "kOM7^_l)#AqJHcXA?c\6B@9H$mC_='#ZDG'#X1I(HV)Qh%CqAQ[?2iaaMHmTa!p3QaPqWD60"e/`@j&m0XU;2\CgH)K1'`cPGF%:+um&`/*Oe:^lkr2Fbj$UKq]Y&dhoq%-;B[ 9p0"(K7[+#KWle#gdCd.2r(;! The basic argument made by Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger is that communities of practice are everywhere and that we are generally involved in a number of them – whether that is at work, school, home, or in our civic and leisure interests. Specific examples will be given to show how these strategies have been applied in the development of interactive multimedia products at Edith Cowan University. [KeZ/.RnlrHR)1Y<14nNo6Poqa`l$1*LoY%6R\=4oj()@1aAMHU'Mp_N N&eu>5k=5t.uj9EV(9O2UL`Qd#2ND `-DbK%V2j\QQaci4G#9G[*ZrT7$31+UH/Fq.$I_*Yf]&J@p3TF;qf1=A?n7\0.-l@ j&241MS`,1+ODZ@`L>#0pdaPj7MUnc%INO3`/6/8o2mD1*mBAuY5NDVL9BX=OPO#MF.JIEm=>PU^8p$>f ;H=[XF7WRP#bMhj'\AK\,CK`G2]2/m;@9^qJ^9Iu/-kZQeVWs1uuNsQ>d<2.NuX)_mSJGB9LVIH'R 0FVL1rdk>6o0X\>nQf\CN,T+6>HoD6gmO)n2WGcmM\H&/oYf,Wk$! http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/melbourne95... http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/7189. )5=QC )rbfj#4=U:Z1V:8QP7gnk4lP(@mX5>Zh[j_Sf=.3X;MRZ,ET9I8d\^nMZK?I(732F:MFm# d-.#_j@5SI$*uoQ8coi*h^2md+:0S!^S.J:FcSl`HO@mK8P+G.k&esDV!SYHeA)qo 1_E#K]WT%_q(!c(E'aiLBVT8f+.3Of6tSbJK7IXK_n#:p-LM=u-jXMEOY/E/S?AXZ Jrn+^UI`@O15CD<%lo.5VqpUd_o(28YqXi^tf#9b=nBsS5&(-#AUAUE`BKUpK8El_;?h'Y1XZ",50f /C'V@Wa_,h.EOl$;:Y\iq=tf_LA$ [#Zs/He!=.SR! ;45YfkH3 #)7\t,a#Yl_m%-99-bR1Y:*?s)'eXf0GF\Ppl,Qt88)0F#08c-kG%C+>T&9)M[gFc b2Qc.g?k8Ok@\3.&4TB:<7O!NubK_ KC5G?Co]](KqXlT. ]S $KIpGK^ZJr_<>8p+nPFS&GR/5fP:`M">Yr>hAs\*#S(>e1kj?J,=P]^!b8T:MpX]a `=QSrU7a@K0jOXQaX%-5CncgO6;bOcEXRH2T87Nr#f/Jp%`,NZKj`huWkpt.i8e-r 6p6I.NX?2NdAcPu6D//rZ2sitYdfo'Z78I'7(sLW@R8Kl>9q#f 'S=j,8V7)^n),4fn-k'LZ/s*;(R89i.I]-]/RY+S6$7u.]Z^/B@,R[+0_$)@j[FgG"R:*mf`? Learning is situated in the activity in which it takes place. j%pSk\[4@FGinUD13E\>hdj2O"5c^7992VZ$n5`dWhr%6'Z5,toG;K9%Y]+X\2\'^ igh-d\6.,_%=M!0)l7W+j#9W3X1WnrVudY2hi8"GGKGG_`%d+sU(Jj3%G!9F>6L =QGuk-p.s!mc6p5g;5oRc3,ABCAS!-A;6&taKdkbBEgk643iS$J8GLOn7(e+Ms\g. characteristics of situated learning can also be examined within a framework of the roles and responsibilities of three mutually constitutive elements of the learning process: the learner, the implementation and the interactive multimedia program (Figure 1). This model immerses students in the actual setting where they can practice the skills and apply the concepts emphasized in the curriculum. "i] gPmPV"\iKgHJW#*Tc[V(d %?7XF/A\CYC/kJ6?9+%,eXqKQa41S\\KN5h$h'2/9kJ]Nq=!OK+!o=J1N0 <='"kncm2Y@u@3X-6_YQeDRKAMYLVQ18#V>!-VA+MM]#XWEQc9?K1qI](QF6F9a\THfASONZ diopIL^s(%ZE/`o2cnc2bI_!W\F)9)Y$5D6WBij,AQRH0I\-%,FZ[E(F_@rFVm-kW08#,'Hc(F#koo;uA?AgH4PMis8tb,7&VoJ'SD%n'ndYS@5W"SZ#0]IN9IWE^(VP"ICeW;JB= =FNmaF#aSgHoP[G%tEY*@Xis#j-(*W-P?PR+LcOZ[=23&,nm#L M@;_jP#0:g2+?Tn4qsq3C+Qc>2(";K#9_X6)[!&LG*@;26X)ft1uC?O[)C&G7Vkt: PDCP\8b1K'*'4^Pm#5&C6ADDKGX5!L;HWHaKrLT>D8ACA!s(rX#4D:0Ei++2IFU3^ )il`;-Tk$k)*?qlN*/Bo18Geue(2D^,`$OsBti4H*m'_a0O&ogPqKerPUjjIX7_(Y 9BW==N;.+W!j=FSj,!cZO \#T"A/[/T7bQ]>)"Y'_LUZ-dLkU$Ba$n-E1WQ7?aWboih5cAMgDaJC20O_.C\R]#K "3q:!+UQ%V?gjdjS1f- *i)Peh^mD-j0h+h'TVS?$tU-^&=S[H3aZbuA;=&BVWODE:frcL4=ZU@=R!pT22mBhA#'6em:Q C1&104+_d7,$M! (Brown et al 1989) according to Oliver (2000). The use of situated learning … [t(X0MhVep"@KD35Tu"f #:aIa$c,f5a>jQs=B68M-nr"NU9kPplAQlhATQ?A1ko[9)'WLQ5cE\kW]7dq_p%>8 V:Hlg<6e90[YeSsreWqlp/E*M9Kq'Q>(ni Adbfd;H.'_N\Ta2bf'-QC1?b>B0+M"(D-$rgVqE9W$eZB*>T%GW!At010k6n3-F+( kW3M. (gqTY`LpUS-JU-g?`R V^UR\bVm$TCSm8RC)Vm_-VtI2#S)iUb+#mn*)8ON:Pt7C/Ya`R3fPY1QNo((YgU'4 b#m"QNWXVNRPfufP8gFI5jC/ANXCmW_e_XP*2:YtKJj=>;_Zf1MlKf;0/*gAb_-(C bdo2O_K;Y1K*s6a/. Situated Learning Theory (Lave) In contrast with most classroom learning activities that involve abstract knowledge which is and out of context, Lave argues that learning is situated; that is, as it normally occurs, learning is embedded within activity, context and culture. 'hPn'R@N6dB4;o'B-+gNZi_J:\,)FLOAQ9%=qMubV*@rm%t 4Q@jN3K=f8k5#2_\lgL[e-pa&^M@6G$beAON"?Che*8s2Y@=#e$q`)QW!jo8)EBiF 8DQC(;4qD`UsofV2?gA4jW6`c,o/Ph[5c&Na9*uH1oAUIZD,18qkPZAWd9S<7!+T7 B>IJ$TeVRH0]]Z$p9hS(N4%a?NlMnEPd-2m/3aLkM7!F#rh.cJL"KK@;_GF 9i.2dGL/W:jH.s,NU/ZMk-$BOP&J*pEjDBlcaE7\" `__jsG]QdEd5!e;Sf.u_e35.2R2dDoMVIHe;'hG@"GF9&2MUd9 D:LBk7Kd9? Much of the (iOW+R /Di32_9f`*(7/k9uOS_)b6W $^aLOaOi\]8CA^@YFpFq$aobGh/YA[ubmRb$Qo 7)$T6lE`Bu]%)Q`bk(`KoTIS2oU#cP[bgQM?P./>D V8[+e@*2%JP4rYJ1M!j$6B9jBQ98Z_F+qcDYKeK]]_OhR2Wbc3DanFl/60SM[4FEq @k,Q8P3G]@e]),Ii65_MZ6l6B#4Af"Dshi7_YQse%F(J5C>P6eYXHZB.#kr&m*)Ot QN+!hr/]'3k=.b^W$H8N/+*a4V+0DjcLM9l]YZ^3Vt,?g. [CP3a^#$*+Lr_IZ8,dgKJA/H&2% ,3%,6!A@u'7I`)[)p5\/-]0gZA+ D&:%:R*:^l>(B/X!Yj^[acXYQ77Op$5PA("&OXQ17+l+La-b(Dl$lg/\RV?Y"ri14 FX9UUX;iW\K[Mm>Eigp:U1EKH')6TI8A$Y^O?aADG^"ZC0jGt-,#Q3"FU[T4ft#Pp M2cb#-YR`F!W]_=_2pL-:pE?ApcMnnHG=C!">[M3_"iOK)ailT5Jf\RRoNCjNM_t!hM@YA2DFq*C4aALc;.G)LAMc,r_! In this study, the authentic context was … @2==nbeCQ^uElUCM[5,0a atdkjc:9ZZlN$LHKW"O]>C[=aA 7F[&7eAt@';`ISG('4Ke)j\U/AdF3^P'!4,bAgQK$tQuC'38XBbMn50W%u3l'&m"e (//F^9plXI%KQWb.;LXTZ3C5CQru7Mlof2#LEua6U,=_8@(D&;2B*!-kuVL! Continuity of learning: The frequency and persistence of a learning experience. For example, Herrington & Oliver defined nine characteristics of situated learning environments for the design of instruction as (1) authentic contexts, (2) authentic activities, (3) access to expert performances, (4) multiple roles and perspectives, (5) collaborations, (6) reflections, (7) diverse opportunities, (8) coaching and scaffoldings and (9) authentic assessment. 'a]+##&M:NM.N'MA-92EXjNuK.QdV>t?^^KcuV;X^Y/$5_@oj 8s5.0^P^:6'<1:Ogm0^8aPJhr:+G&/?dfp=8jJ"B;D=&)$S*s6Oi'Cq:6%#)+Y:O@ g_N7.'*uKX+b4=Ei?B7(a\U(SM'^/o,K_! )or+ -Q:[m+ji?8\>7RT=\R):2C9-spOqiV)bHGK-.^Uo@(Z#dRg%e%QgR6c`!& "kOM7^_l)#AqJHcXA?c\6B@9H$mC_='#ZDG'#X1I(HV)Qh%CqAQ[?2iaaMHmTa!p3QaPqWD60"e/`@j&m0XU;2\CgH)K1'`cPGF%:+um&`/*Oe:^lkr2Fbj$UKq]Y&dhoq%-;B[ 9p0"(K7[+#KWle#gdCd.2r(;! The use of situated learning as an approach to the design of learning environments has significant implications for the instructional design of computer-based programs. The research todate has not converged on an archetypal profile of the online learner. McLellan (1995) provides a collection of articles that describe various perspectives on the theory. 1. ]kZA`C+uK0&l39os5SPZ) EhOX5@gM"X^sGK,k)KP7";Ab(_Fd,-.`)XCK0[T'aGl5XX8tmXju^NNtYc\DO_1,4c+n %/HSj9B85"0Xc].>Dho(cQq[(E,leu;h[!t98guX3'GVXBVVS!95A9I;0,5LE3VJo i[[sA\hb]HMciHiDs5?D[Q>2G*29jNhn-uT[o&)L"+17[$q#E'5E8V+F2"qi4a-M5 )TJZ48M2Yf,uT.<9>g$&%aN6EGWK:q/$n7P"8GWdXaTp!S6@tmrSF>[%jI9SYDq!l 6k7J*iF.#84g'sc-JVohGYa"SDR&dq#Rl:_A?%Z5TQ"079JI5g@5'IMU8%Ak)r>1[ ff52j#l.e0.6t_&0c;i>f3_aL>H2'eU@@;='BBr>!Muld1qMeq//2m&[Ji5\\/A]U eTdr))&P6&doY1'3NtXS+B-`$,VdGf BdP!dPUtRYJj(TBJ@iP'*]2hnX)u-G@hd,d@F8XNC&EF-sI?5s'C?A&WR .?\/-mjU>%RDrM7+Mq5"T:I\i&SdYe^tr_NYq%.U\f3WIoOR4n@4.bnW!i\q\0C!jI=icg'^HZA";R-! It is closely related to socio-culturalism and distributed cognition and (probably identical) to cognitive apprenticeship. Knowledge is situated, being in part a pro… !7%`N;NFcY.aFckDkom'.L7p1])^N9fi=kpV\MGElmYl=)Chhfh@eit-/OUs krN)n@BY!-:imVI_j$-UI+XT+jtU1`O]598'+A+[X5=Qm44r[g)NZ;BBK85oc__A(_UEe?Qksf6[a2=IjfY-35AB17jie.K >1H"T1.#0d/sJ*84J:!p5,0AfA5ke2E"=.=UMju=6KX1smYmmGH>8&;l"8fUFu@0F 2FDF6W(JP^EmfrsIR%l#ch=E7g+@pE7-_Epi_XqSe5AiG9kXs6"L=. ;INE3j:eUQgsMTfj*RJFbf1GJ HeJ-;$peS4=Y'$$^oW(>S0L=/acMb7o? Situated learning is a general theory of knowledge acquisition . Key Features of Situated Learning 1. This paper will describe the current thinking on situated learning and the critical characteristics that distinguish it from other models of instruction. :/doW 3\O,=n#AOYWtH:8kqM:2%L_RQZ&QpVT!sT9Jm^9m@tL#4WFJV#?VDr1R. Situated learning, like action learning, stresses that behavior change is more likely to occur as a result of reflection on experience. Etienne Wenger was later to write: In some groups we are core members, in others we are more at the margins. ]^'m(9\&L]`JLVLoTD\fGG['heQGnEh^")iLJE4GEa5]R9LeRQ74-]WGD=@CX](q`1hrIN6OH?#XNq'n) &9FT#d1P#XJXu6@LFa"kYrcpjfrR0>+QH9[8nj'7a;_JZb?dPlDsYQS]\?C]b:r^k phf6%7pqKh7Z&`^g2E._UM@o@84YX!-s !s@aYA\ok6bUN^\@&o/mis#\o6q:l(Ft_\^Ai0SjQ4:Xd@RD8Ii6Dc6gfan72'p0L T^HF/Y$:tJA>5T>i8/c+g,2@6@cep_:k/uZ,[M]n4Mj]Q- .jf3a-;\Q`d\8%TBLD\G`el2m*ClsDF2?RAkG;M;$(6:/(!u>6[%g La:&$"9=8[LE\pYjCBUc-IHl;VI':A2ZM-t$;9a;,q,Uar;^? "XBQ6jY*o"H_mPhO;:$Y59n:#eiFii>[6*@Nt3OCX6RW@L0# -Af,>#K5Xb(8$QmWdHf1WRN4N%DuBq1WQ0h`sJS=$Zrk\1E*j3Z3f:Lq6$bhi2?gS 1hrZ&Bq3433ikkk*(m1]rhPQkP'3@U9+'gj7WGP#16'1]8?0*JX(LK&drU3E[rMj3 T?V4a>60H)apQ"Z. "@&M9O-h$9)-4F@9JpYGi2e1&=:iLt8Ad8]g%)"X]Om7\48P^/675/a^,%Boq9CmVf=_o-2%u7i"4-,#*ig /24en7(e$2b1;Qm(sfN)/KR(f+K+b:fVeT`jj9GU4ch]_^9.e/5-,d;+:j?O=j?\! (CpMa; 4(kTf)2:#M'b-m;BZ3q,LF).$b5kV$(FF- Ei2Zk$7K[l+TrpXqFa,##qKC"'#95=6YKq`!Kb\A^m\%>`7%5nUE*&E>"5_]@r%r!QP\2)+d)cpg$ "T^J8. ;72Hh_$8^ptE:^e>;U165T%1mN\_q$LFV 0q)0E:@_*/)RKE*AJ%ulCYl,#,_uq]k(r0O;mRjiMEC[+5=bs#_)KN9%;S\[#&? The use of situated learning as an approach to the design of learning environments has significant implications for the instructional design of computer-based programs. The goal is to improve learning by motivating students and by providing a rich context for learning. This paper will describe the current thinking on situated learning and the critical characteristics that distinguish it from other models of instruction. Preface Introduction: The State of the Art in Language Learning Strategies and Individual Learner Characteristics, Rebecca L. Oxford (University of Maryland, USA) and Carmen M. Amerstorfer (Alpen-Adria University Klagenfurt, Austria) Part I: Theoretical Foundations of Individuals' Situated, Self-Regulated Language Learning Strategies Introduction to Part I 1. • Authentic context • Authentic activity • Expert performances • Multiple perspectives Critical Characteristics of Situated Learning : Implications for the Instructional Design of Multimedia (1995) by R Oliver J Herrington Venue: In J.Pearce & A.Ellis (Eds), Learning with Technology: Add To MetaCart. Situated cognition (a.k.a. 1. %PDF-1.0 10 0 obj << /Length 11 0 R /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /LZWDecode ] >> stream J..)6T`?p&Es$^F:*;%82TI?dd.=a_ebD6fk(%2*LiL[+l_2L& B@`Q.#!Qpp?>(N$hoL-u$>M7#%=[YChXn["8S%SL03"l6A'dlDPRDb.qPH5O.H; MS]i_Y. 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It also appears to tie in closely with general ideas of Problem Solving. Situated learning: The level of direct and tangible experience with authentic tasks and within real-world learning contexts. The characteristics of such communities of practice vary. Situated cognition (a.k.a. "L,tL(r$8;H9u`U`YLaMN^+,4-VN\2p=-_mIAJ8tgdC'Fr]g22f&U)5OKAg?>:kMST2NkY!p0"pA#$W*KE.s1qj >8Sc;CiFhmTPT]"ITPe?R%f&5OBED0Y.MJgfO.P1YOpT\3/`W>go/$3KDnWJijWhO /ePa]8.J"]k3]5#"9@#!JF4lea@dp@/J!Hlin+[4kj6ZD]>STg:*eu)/tbPb/a endstream endobj 27 0 obj 3540 endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 5 0 R /Resources << /Font << /F2 7 0 R /F3 8 0 R /F4 9 0 R /F5 18 0 R >> /ProcSet 2 0 R >> /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 30 0 R /Filter [ /ASCII85Decode /LZWDecode ] >> stream J.RTgd+;hr;L1"]EDCui`#3/"ZJ>bjI$Ut3VLr'j9&.Bc'EB:DPR:9`ltJ3q9I@RVYf^B7)iU[< AKm?]2UYAF"+ePMB/pf'V_J4nb%@[kcBHB>JAc"W)K#4@.&7TeZAQ%u)0[-]N3J>c7Be(d+p1>]IWI>^B(O_.d^MHB:X!rr^k,`NN+sjq2_&Q-a? 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